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  1. C# tuple types
  2. 1. Introducing C# and the .NET Framework - C# in a Nutshell [Book]
  3. Deconstructing KeyValuePair
  4. C# Deconstructed: Discover how C# works on the .NET Framework
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This is in addition to type safety being enforced at runtime. Static typing eliminates a large class of errors before a program is even run.

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It shifts the burden away from runtime unit tests onto the compiler to verify that all the types in a program fit together correctly. This makes large programs much easier to manage, more predictable, and more robust. Furthermore, static typing allows tools such as IntelliSense in Visual Studio to help you write a program, since it knows for a given variable what type it is, and hence what methods you can call on that variable. C also allows parts of your code to be dynamically typed via the dynamic keyword. However, C remains a predominantly statically typed language. C is also called a strongly typed language because its type rules whether enforced statically or at runtime are very strict.

This helps prevent mistakes. Strong typing also plays a role in enabling C code to run in a sandbox —an environment where every aspect of security is controlled by the host. In a sandbox, it is important that you cannot arbitrarily corrupt the state of an object by bypassing its type rules. C relies on the runtime to perform automatic memory management.

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The Common Language Runtime has a garbage collector that executes as part of your program, reclaiming memory for objects that are no longer referenced. C does not eliminate pointers: it merely makes them unnecessary for most programming tasks. For performance-critical hotspots and interoperability, pointers and explicit memory allocation is permitted in blocks that are marked unsafe.

Historically, C was used almost entirely for writing code to run on Windows platforms. NET Core is a cross-platform lightweight web hosting framework that can run either on the. NET Framework or on. NET Core, an open source cross-platform runtime. C depends on a runtime equipped with a host of features such as automatic memory management and exception handling. At the core of the Microsoft.

NET Core and Xamarin frameworks provide similar runtimes. The CLR is language-neutral, allowing developers to build applications in multiple languages e. C is one of several managed languages that get compiled into managed code. Managed code is represented in Intermediate Language or IL.

Ahead-of-time compilation is also available to improve startup time with large assemblies or resource-constrained devices and to satisfy iOS app store rules when developing with Xamarin. The container for managed code is called an assembly or portable executable. An assembly can be an executable file. The presence of metadata allows assemblies to reference types in other assemblies without needing additional files. Because IL is higher-level than native machine code, the decompiler can do quite a good job of reconstructing the original C.

A program can query its own metadata reflection , and even generate new IL at runtime reflection. The libraries consist of core libraries which this book is concerned with and applied libraries, which depend on the core libraries. The Microsoft. Over the years, other frameworks have emerged to support other platforms.

There are currently three major players besides the. NET Framework, all of which are currently owned by Microsoft:. Your app runs in a sandbox to lessen the threat of malware, prohibiting operations such as reading or writing arbitrary files.

C# tuple types

An open source framework originally based on a cut-down version of the. Unlike the. NET Framework,. NET Core can be packaged with the web application and xcopy-deployed self-contained deployment. The Xamarin company was purchased by Microsoft in The four major frameworks differ in the platforms they support, the libraries that sit on top, and their intended uses. NET Core 2. NET Standard 2. NET Core under the covers, so technically. NET Core.

NET Core 2 in the future.

1. Introducing C# and the .NET Framework - C# in a Nutshell [Book]

NET Micro Framework is for running. NET code on highly resource-constrained embedded devices under 1 MB. Mono, the open source framework upon which Xamarin sits, also has libraries to develop cross-platform desktop applications on Linux, macOS, and Windows. Not all features are supported, or work fully. This works in conjunction with the standard. WinRT means two things:. The predecessor to UWP, i. Microsoft Windows has historically provided a primitive execution interface in the form of low-level C-style function calls comprising the Win32 API.

WinRT is much richer. This means that referencing a WinRT library from C feels much like referencing a. NET Core libraries. NET Framework platform, referencing the Windows 10 WinRT libraries is optional, and can be useful if you need to access Windows 10—specific features not otherwise covered in the. NET Framework. They also support mobile device-specific features such as sensors, text messaging, and so on the new functionality of Window 8, 8.

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  • For example, WinRT will adapt capitalization rules to suit the standards of the target language, and will even remap some functions and interfaces. WinRT assemblies also ship with rich metadata in. NET types, aside from namespace differences.

    Deconstructing KeyValuePair

    Another clue is that WinRT types are subject to COM-style restrictions; for instance, they offer limited support for inheritance and generics. The following is a reverse chronology of the new features in each C version, for the benefit of readers already familiar with an older version of the language. Numeric literals in C 7 can include underscores to improve readability. These are called digit separators and are ignored by the compiler:. C 7 makes it easier to call methods that contain out parameters. First, you can now declare out variables on the fly:. You can also introduce variables on the fly with the is operator.

    You can specify conditions with a when clause, and also switch on the null value:. Local methods are visible only to the containing function, and can capture local variables in the same way that lambda expressions do. C 7 introduces the deconstructor pattern. Whereas a constructor typically takes a set of values as parameters and assigns them to fields, a deconstructor does the reverse and assigns fields back to a set of variables. We could write a deconstructor for the Person class in the preceding example as follows exception-handling aside :.

    Tuples provide a simple way to store a set of related values:. But thanks to compiler magic, tuple elements can be named:.

    With tuples, functions can return multiple values without resorting to out parameters:. Tuples implicitly support the deconstruction pattern, so they can easily be deconstructed into individual variables. We can rewrite the preceding Main method so that the tuple returned by GetFilePosition is instead assigned to two local variables, row and column :. Prior to C 7, throw was always a statement. Now it can also appear as an expression in expression-bodied functions:.

    The compiler itself is open source, and the source code is available at github. In addition, C 6.

    C# Deconstructed: Discover how C# works on the .NET Framework

    In the following example, result evaluates to null instead of throwing a NullReferenceException :. NET 4. Mohammad Rahman. If you are already experienced with writing managed applications and want to learn more about how to get the best from the language at an advanced level, then this is the book for you. A Programmer's Guide to C 5. Eric Gunnerson. Illustrated C Daniel Solis. Illustrated C doesnt use the traditional dense prose format of most programming texts. Rather, it presents the C programming language in a unique visual manner. The book uses three techniques to achieve this: concise text, tables that clarify and summarize language features, and frequent figures and diagrams.

    Each feature is also illustrated with concise, focused code samples. T he purpose of this book is to teach you the fundamentals and mechanics of the C progr- ming language. Most books teach programming primarily using text. Many of us think visually, and figures and tables can help clarify and crystallize our und- standing of a concept. In several years of teaching programming languages, I have found that the pictures I drew on the whiteboards were the things that most quickly helped the students understand the concepts I was trying to convey.

    Illustrations alone, however, are not sufficient to explain a programming language and platform.

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    The goal of this book is to find the best combination of words and illustrations to give you a thorough understanding of the language, and to allow the book to serve as a reference resource as well. This book is written for anyone who wants an introduction to the C programming language—from the novice to the seasoned programmer. For those just getting started in programming, I have included the basics. For seasoned programmers, the content is laid out succinctly, and in a form that will allow you to go directly to the information required without having to wade through oceans of words.

    For both sets of programmers, the content itself is presented graphically, in a form that should make the language easy to learn. Paul Gibbons.

    Java developers have already adapted to a world in which everything is an object, resources are reclaimed by a garbage collector, and multiple inheritance is replaced by interfaces. NET environment using C. Still, although there are many similarities between Java and C , as always, the devil is in the details.

    But it provides more than just language details: Developing enterprise applications requires mastering the libraries that allow you to build applications that communicate with databases and include network components, Web pages, and many other features. NET Framework. At first glance there might not seem to be much similarity between the two, but Paul Gibbons shows you there is much the Java developer has learned from using J2EE that translates easily when using the. Subsequent chapters cover various technology areas demonstrating where knowledge gained from developing with J2EE translates into enterprise development in.

    These chapters also provide sufficient additional information on the. NET technologies to allow Java developers to start using them immediately. Mainstream technologies such as database access are covered first, with more esoteric areas such as message-oriented middleware and directory services left until later. The final chapter examines migrating existing Java applications to C and the tools and techniques that are available. NET using C. He has used many languages in more than 25 years of software development, but his current favorite is C.

    Originally from Yorkshire, England, he now lives in Washington State with his wife and three children. In his spare time he enjoys gardening and bird watching. Similar ebooks. Mikael Olsson. This quick C 7 guide is a condensed code and syntax reference to the C programming language, updated with the latest features of C 7. NET and Windows It presents the essential C 7 syntax in a well-organized format that can be used as a handy reference.

    In the C 7 Quick Syntax Reference, you will find a concise reference to the C language syntax: short, simple, and focused code examples; a well laid out table of contents; and a comprehensive index allowing easy review. What you will find is a language reference that is concise, to the point, and highly accessible. NET for Windows 10 programming, including out values, ref locals and returns, local functions, throw exceptions, and numeric literals Create lightweight, unnamed types that contain multiple public fieldsCreate branching logic based on arbitrary types and values of the members of those types Nest functions inside other functions to limit their scope and visibility Throw expressions in code constructs that previously were not allowed Declare methods with the async modifier to return other types in addition to TaskUse the new numeric literals found in C 7.

    Some C or. NET recommended but not necessary. Joseph Albahari. When you have questions about C 7.