- Browning 1950 Automatic Rifle BAR Type D- FN Manual & Description
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- Cornell Publications -Browning Automatic Rifle BAR Type D- FN Manual & Description
Shell stripper 62 is generally square in plan view and has a mounting aperture 78 formed longitudinally through an outer end region thereof.
Browning 1950 Automatic Rifle BAR Type D- FN Manual & Description
Formed upwardly into shell stripper 62, at a inner, rearwardly corner of the stripper is a recess 80 which receives forward regions of belt links 36 when a shell 34 is being stripped out of ammunition belt 32 during firing of gun 10 and holds the link in place i. Anti-back up pawl 66 is formed having a pair of outwardly projecting, longitudinally spaced apart, parallel ears 82 interconnected at inner end by a pawl portion A pair of longitudinally aligned mounting apertures 86 are formed through outer end regions of ears Upon assembly, anti-back up pawl 66 is positioned between shell pusher ears 72 with mounting apertures 86 and 74 aligned, and with a coil-type torsion spring between pawl ears An elongate pin 96, extends longitudinally through apertures not shown in cover plate 60 and through shell pusher apertures 74, pawl apertures 86, spring 94 and stripper apertures Pin 96 pivotly mounts shell pusher 64 and stripper 62 in a side-by-side relationship, with the stripper forwardly of the pusher and with anti-back up pawl 66 between pusher ears 72, within a rectangular recess formed upwardly into cover plate 60 and defined by an under surface 98 FIGS.
Compression springs and , installed between inner end regions of shell pusher 64 and shell stripper 62, respectively, and cover plate under surface 98, when the shell holder and stipper are installed on pin 96, urge inner end regions of the pusher and stripper downwardly.
Such downward pivoting is limited by the upper surfaces of outer ends of shell pusher 64 and stripper 62 bearing against cover under surface Further comprising cover assembly 58 still referring to FIG. Latches are retained in end region by a pair of vertical pins Projecting forwardly from cover 60, and forming part thereof, are a two similar, laterally spaced apart arms , by means of which the cover assembly is attached to receiver A pair of laterally aligned attaching apertures are formed through forward end regions of arms for receiving a removable mounting pin , as described below.
Ammunition belt adapter base 56 is configured to mate with cover assembly 58, described above, so that ammunition belt 32 FIG. A recessed bottom region of base 56 is formed having a longitudinal shell feeding slot which is narrower in rearward regions than in forward regions, the forward regions being sufficiently wide to permit a shell 34 being stripped forwardly from ammunition belt 32 to move downwardly through the slot and into a shell chamber FIG.
Rearward regions of feeding slot are narrower than a shell width so that shells 34 moved into a shell pick up position FIG. Two longitudinally spaced apart, lateral slots only a forward one of which is shown in FIG. A rectangular, belt link ejection port is defined in an inboard side edge of base 56 to enable the discharge of belt links 36 after a shell 34 has been stripped from the link which is at feed slot Projecting forwardly from adapter base 56 and forming a part thereof are two laterally spaced apart mounting arms having mounting apertures formed therein for receiving mounting pin Upon attachment of belt feeding adapter 40 to receiver 12, arms of cover 60 fit inside of arms of base 56 and such arms slide downwadly into slots in upper forward regions of the receiver until the apertures and in respective arms and are aligned with a mating transverse aperture formed through a receiver boss and side ears defined by slots Pin is then inserted laterally through apertures , and , the pin being thereafter locked in place, as by the use of a detent pin having a spring When pin is removed cover assembly 58 and base 56 can be removed as two pieces.
When adapter base 56 and cover assembly 58 are pivoted closed on pin , latches on cover 60 snap into a latching member mounted on receiver 12 FIG. As shown in FIGS. Comprising barrel lock assembly are an operating lever , a barrel locking pin a tubular bushing and concentric compression springs and Lever is formed having two, laterally spaced apart, depending legs , each of which has a mounting aperture formed therethrough. When lock assembly is attached to receiver 12, legs straddle boss and extend downwardly into slots on either side of the boss.
Bushing is inserted, through an outer aperture in righthand side ear , into the corresponding aperture in boss and through lever leg apertures In the above-described manner, lever is locked to boss and can pivot on bushing which has clearance relative to the boss aperture. Upper ends of compression springs and are received into a shallow pocket FIG. Lower ends of springs and are received in a shallow recess formed into a forward end region of receiver Barrel locking pin is installed in a vertical aperture formed downwarly through boss Locking pin is fixed to lever legs by a transverse pin which extends through apertures in legs rearwardly of apertures , through a vertically elongated slot , which extends transversely through boss in the region of aperture , and through a transverse aperture through locking pin When so installed, springs and urge the lower end of locking pin into an aperture FIG.
When barrel locking assembly is installed in the above described manner, a bushing FIG.
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Cam follower assembly 46 FIG. Cam follower member is formed having upper and lower mounting ears and , respectively, at the forward end. Mounting apertures and are formed, in vertical alignment, through respective mounting ears and for receiving a mounting pivot pin A pair of mating mounting lugs project outwardly from the lefthand side of receiver 12 rearwardly adjacent to receiver side ears FIGS. A coil torsion spring installed on pin between cam follower member ears and urges the member to pivot about the pin in an inward direction in the direction of arrow "A", FIG.
Projecting inwardly from a reawardly end region of cam follower member is a cam follower arm FIGS. Pivotally mounted to the inboard, distal end of cam follower arm is a depending cam follower element A reaward end of cam follower member is curverd inwardly to form a shell casing ejector having a flat, forwardly directed, casing ejector face FIG. Comprising belt advancing pawl assembly FIGS. Two pairs of pawl mounting ears project upwardly from the top of arm , one pair of ears being at each end of the arm in a longitudinally spaced apart relationship.
Pawl mounting apertures are formed in ears and correspondig apertures are formed through the outboard end of each pawl With both pawls pointing inardly FIG. Torsion coil springs mounted on pin , between pawls , urge inboard ends of the pawls upwardly FIG. Lower surface regions of pawls beneath mounting pin bear against an upper surface of arm and limit pivotal movement of the pawls. A conventional C-ring FIG. When pawls are installed in the above described manner, they curve upwardly and inwardly FIG. Bolt group 54 FIG. Bolt assembly is mounted to bolt carrier assembly in a generally conventional manner so that limited axial movement between them is permitted.
In turn comprising bolt assembly is a bolt having a forward face FIGS. An ejection recess is cut into bolt opposite to casing extractor Bolt carrier assembly comprises a generally L-shaped carrier having an elongate lower portion and a shorter upper portion Connected to a forward end region of carrier lower portion is a forwardly directed, gas operated push rod. A rearwardly directed, elongate recoil rod extends through a longitudinal aperture in carrier lower portion in axial alignment with push rod Mounted around recoil rod , rearwardly of carrier , is a long recoil spring Longitudinally mounted in an aperture formed axially through carrier upper portion along a barrel bore axis FIGS.
When locking element is pushed downwardly against spring , firing pin is inserted through an aligned aperture in the element. Then, when element is released, spring pushes the element upwardly so that portions of the element adjacent aperture engage a groove around rearward regions of the firing pin, thereby locking the firing pin in carrier upper portion Although locking element is thereby held in aperture by firing pin , if the firing pin has to be repolaced, the element will be loose unless otherwise retained.
For such retaining purpose, a slender, transverse pin is installed in a transverse aperture formed through carrier upper portion in the region of locking pin aperture When inserted in aperture , pin is received in a recess in a forward side of locking element As a result, firing pin can be removed without removing locking pin Forward regions of firing pin are received into a bore axis aperture formed through bolt when bolt assembly and carrier assembly are assembled together.
Bolt assembly is connected to carrier assembly by a transverse camming pin which is received in a recess in bolt and which extends into a flat L-shaped camming aperture formed through the inboard side of carrier upper portion Camming pin and camming aperture permit limited axial movement of bolt assembly relative to carrier assembly and permit the bolt assembly to rotate a partial turn so that the bolt assembly can be locked to a breech locking ring FIG.
Importantly, as shown in FIGS. The depth and width of cam track are selected so that cam track follower element slides freely along the track FIG. Bolt group 54 is installed in receiver 12 for axial sliding movement between a forwardmost battery position FIG. This rearward, recoil position of bolt group 54 may, however, vary depending upon many factors including characteristics of the ammumition fired which determine recoil forces , temperature of gun 10, amount of wear of the moving parts of the gun, and the amount of lubrication and dirt present in the gun.
Guides, such as guides , and FIG. Formed through a righthand side wall of receiver 12, opposite cam follower member FIGS. Below and rearwardly of ejection port is an axially elongate charger slot through which, upon assembly of gun 10, a charging lever not shown outwardly projects.
An axially elongated cam follower slot is formed in a lefthand side wall of receiver 12 to enable the insertion of cam follower arm though such side wall and into engagement with bolt carrier cam track The timing could not have been more favorable with World War 1 starting that year. The British orders for their military and commonwealth troops soon reached massive scale.
Lewis gathered huge fortune after British started mass-manufacturing of his light machinegun in year Lewis machinegun was remarkable weapon by World War 1 standards, being quite likely the best of early light machineguns used in that war. It had gas-action mechanism with gas-piston and rotating lock, both features commonly used nowadays. It also fired from open bolt, which improved the weapon's cooling. In fact only problems concerning this weapon seem to have been related to its realibility and tendency to overheat if fired too rapidly too long. Tendency to overheat was related to lacking quick change barrel feature and unique cooling jacket containing aluminium heat sink, which with air-flow cooled the barrel upto a point, after which the weapon could overheat.
The cooling jacket and aluminum heat sink inside it weight about 1. The main benefactors for the reliability-probelems seem to have been in its two-plane drum magazines, which are open bottom design and the weapon's recoil-spring which is clock spring type arrangement. Not surpringly considering Lewis was one of the first light machineguns, field disassembly and putting back together are quite complicated. Besides light machinegun use the weapon saw plenty of use as aircraft weaponry, in armoured vehicles and as antiaircraft machineguns.
When it came to infantry use, there is some debate if the weapon would have been better off without the cooling jacket containing aluminum heat sink considering its weight. During World War 1 Lewis seems to have been rather popular among British troops and also their German opponents seem to have highly valued captured Lewish light machineguns and even converted considerable number possibly about 10, to their standard 7.
However Lewis machinegun was also rather complicated and very expensive weapon to manufacture even by World War 1 standards. During World War 1 unknown number of Lewis guns in. In between world wars the commercial success continued as these machineguns were manufactured for large number of countries.
Lewis machinegun remained in use of British military also for duration of World War 2, but manufacturing effectiness-wise it was obviously outdated by that time. So the British declared Lewis machinegun obsolete in year In 's Finnish Civil Guard had about 60 Lewis light machineguns in its inventory.
Just before Civil War Civil Guards had succeeded re-routing shipment of 24 Lewis light machineguns belonging to Russian military to Kuopio, where dozen of them played role in January - February in securing part of Finnish gold deposit. Photo source Finna. Small number of mixed versions of this weapon had cumulated to Finland during Civil War in year and saw some use during it.
Likely most if not all of these weapons were captured from Russian military. They were a terribly mixed bunch with individual weapons containing even parts from several manufacturers and equipped with mixed equipment. Lewis machineguns that had ended up to Finland were also in two different calibres: 7.
From these two versions the 7. April of Finnish military tested various light machinegun designs and Lewis light machinegun was among the tested weapons, but Madsen won the tests and was chosen as standard light machinegun for the Finnish military. Year Finnish Ministry of Defense transferred all non-aircraft Lewis guns and their magazines bit over 60 guns and about magazines total to Suojeluskunta Finnish Civil Guard , which then used them for training purposes. At least three of these 60 machine guns were apparently in.
Apparently Civil Guard heavily concentrated Lewis-guns to its Viipuri District, which received no less than 32 guns. It was normal that when it came to heavy weapons, Civil Guard very much relied on loaning equipment from Finnish Army instead of trying to buy them with its own limited financial resources. Starting year Finnish Army started loaning Lahti-Saloranta light machineguns from its own inventory to Civil Guard.
By end of year Civil Guard had had total Lahti-Saloranta loaned from the Army and had also bought 40 new Lahti-Saloranta light machineguns, hence it had much less need for old Lewis light machineguns. At the time Ministry of Defence used the oppertunity of sell also about 70 Lewis. It is likely that those 70 guns may have originated from Finnish Air Force, which had previously been using Lewis guns in numerous aircraft.
However small number of aircraft version of Lewis gun remained in Finland even during World War 2. Finnish Air Force used in small scale in its aircraft and as dual barrel antiaircraft-installations during Winter War. During Continuation War the 40 or so dual barrel Lewis antiaircraft-machineguns saw use mainly with home front troops.
The last remaining weapons were sold to USA in year For all practical purposes this weapon was the last and most advanced version of FN BAR light machinegun. At and again after WW2. Finnish use: Finland bought of these light machineguns from Belgium in February of They were not issued during Winter War - During Continuation War - they were first issued to fortification troops and later to coastal troops.
Originally Colt had the manufacturer of B. The first weapon of this type it manufactured was Polish order for 10, 7. This version delivered to Poland was based to "R 75" commercial version, which Colt had introduced in year Year FN introduced Mle 30 light machinegun, to which D. Saive had developed capability for automatic fire with two separate rates of fire - slower and faster. FN manufactured Mle 30 light machinegun in 7. The main customer for Mle 30 light machinegun was Belgian Army, but by the time its production ended several thousand weapons had also been sold to China, Chile and Ethiopia.
The letter D in this name from French term Demontable - meaning removable. This indicated that the barrel of this version was capable to be quickly removed and replaced with another one - a new feature among weapons belonging to B. Saive also redesigned the whole receiver for FN Modele D making disassembling and reassembling the weapon much easier. Another notable improvements introduced with FN Modele D were carrying handle earlier versions has none and new rear sight, which was tangent sight with aperture.
However it had failed attracting orders and pre-war production numbers were quite small. Also, when German Army invaded Belgium in year even all these improvements were not enough to convince the Germans to keep it in production for their own use - so they stopped its production. Compared to German MG, the standard issue machinegun of German Army at the time, FN Modele D had one very serious disadvantage - it was not belt-fed and its magazine capacity was very small.
Like earlier B.
After World War 2 this by then best version of Browning Automatic Rifle was already too old-fashioned for success. The production of this weapon did continue after World War 2, but failed gaining large-scale commercial success. The largest difference between pre World War 2 FN Modele D and its post-war version is gas-regulator, which was redesigned. After 7.
But as the basic magazine-fed B. Only known users of this weapon were Belgian Army and Israeli military. Since FN ended its production in year only commercial semi-auto hunting rifle versions which have developed very far from original Browning M based to original B. During World War 2 Finland seems to have been quite likely the only country, which used FN Modele D light machineguns in any real numbers. And even in its case the decision for acquiring them was not based to long-term plan, but to immediate need of automatic weapons.
During Winter War Finnish shortage of military equipment included also having far too few light machineguns, so Finland bought from Belgium brand new FN Modele D light machineguns that were delivered in February of They were not yet issued during Winter War, but during Continuation War they were first issued to fortification troops and later mainly to coastal troops.
The likelyreason for this was their calibre - unlike frontline infantry armed mainly with weapons chambered 7. These weapons were the most numerous light machinegun model in use of coastal troops, who used them until end of the war. Finnish Army issued these weapons usually with bandolier containing slots for 12 magazines, but apparently usually only six magazines were issued per weapon. Other equipment issued with them included variety of tools and spare-parts, which included also spare barrel. A drill did not last long, in which attacking soldiers should fire a shot with every left foot step forward.
In fact, practical drills only emerged after the few months of war with American involvement had been analyzed after the November ceasefire.
Instead of being a kind of assault weapon, as it was used in the trench warfare of World War One, the BAR supported the infantry group by covering fire during combat. A total of about 85, copies of the model were delivered and the original M stock was sent to Britain in to equip the Home Guard and other secondary units. In this model the bipod was revised and the firing stability was improved. The new weapon was manufactured by the New England Arms Company and the International Business Machines in a quantity of , units.
This made the BAR MA2 the most common light machine gun in the US armed forces and remained in use in this form until the early s. Nevertheless, there was still a lack of the too small magazine with only 20 rounds when used as a light machine gun. It was still considered a hermaphrodite by military theorists, while it was generally popular with field troops. Since his BAR was produced here under licence and small quantities were also delivered to the armed forces of Sweden, some Baltic states and Central and South America, including Honduras.
Many of these eventually ended up with the National Chinese Army. The Belgian armed forces introduced the slightly improved and precisely processed original 7. During the German occupation, the FN weapon factory continued to build the machine gun for the Wehrmacht. The Polish army introduced the BAR modified in caliber 7. Subsequently, the Warsaw factory began to build its own model in , which was based on a Belgian license.
This light machine gun was perfected by and around 11, weapons were available to the Polish armed forces at the outbreak of World War II. Before the war, 1, units were exported by the Poles and specimens captured in Poland were used by both the Red Army and the Germans during the Second World War.
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Cornell Publications -Browning Automatic Rifle BAR Type D- FN Manual & Description
You can unsubscribe at any time the notifications. Your email address will be treat as confidential and there will be no advertising sent. Email Address. Original BAR M During the weeks of murderous fightings there the GIs from 4th, 8th and 28th Division were among those who paid for the slow advance of the 1st US Army. Japanese machine gun troop in the early morning light in an abandoned building. Belgian model