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Contents:
  1. 1. Introduction
  2. Nuestras obras
  3. INDUSTRIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGY M / — Università di Bologna
  4. Download Biotechnology Environmental Processes Ii Volume 11B Second Edition Second Edition
  5. Biotechnology

In some instances, the requirement itself will reference a particular type of work area e. In instances where the requirements differ for different work areas, the exceptions are listed in square brackets below the requirement e. The absence of a symbol in a column indicates that the element is not required for that containment level. The description of the symbols and an example of the matrix layout is provided in Figure For CL2 and CL2-Ag zones, the following symbols are used to facilitate the identification of the applicable requirements.

Figure Example of the matrix layout and the symbols found in Chapters 3, 4, and 5. The image provides a visual representation of part of Matrix 3. Enlarge Figure The Explanatory Notes, found in the Appendix, provide additional information to identify the risk s that are being mitigated by each requirement listed in Chapters 3, 4, and 5. The Explanatory Notes also provide examples of how the requirement can be achieved.

The Explanatory Notes for the requirements listed in Chapter 5 provide more details on the tests to be performed. The Explanatory Notes are organized in such a way that each requirement in Chapters 3, 4, and 5 has a corresponding entry in the Explanatory Notes, following the same numbering convention. It is important to note that the examples included in the Explanatory Notes are not provided as specific requirements or recommendations; rather they are provided for clarification and represent typical means of meeting a requirement.

The CBH is structured to systematically address the concepts required for the development of a comprehensive risk-based biosafety management program. The CBH provides general guidance for containment zone personnel rather than specific guidance or standard operating procedures SOPs for individual pathogens. This chapter describes the physical containment requirements designed to mitigate the risks associated with handling or storing pathogens , toxins , infected animals, or other regulated infectious material.

Physical containment is achieved through specific physical barriers provided by engineering controls and facility design. The phrase "in accordance with function" is included in some requirements where the specific activities and procedures performed in the containment zone i. Details on the use and interpretation of the matrices that follow are provided in Chapter 2. A description of the symbols used appears in Section 2.

The site selection process for a containment zone generally includes an assessment of local programs and the local environment. Consideration of the risks , including the impact of possible pathogen or toxin release , is important at the beginning of the design phase and before construction work begins. In areas prone to natural disasters, buildings and support systems for containment zones may need to meet more stringent building codes. The containment barrier refers to the physical structure s or obstruction s present that create a boundary between the "clean" and "dirty" areas of a containment zone.

In containment zones where inward directional airflow IDA is provided, the containment barrier is also maintained through negative air pressure differentials and IDA. Points of access through the containment barrier are provided through doors and anterooms. Equipment such as dunk tanks , pass-through chambers , and double-door barrier autoclaves, are examples of penetrations of the containment barrier.

Physical and security barriers e. In high containment zones , the physical barriers help maintain inward directional airflow IDA and provide space so that contaminated or potentially contaminated personal protective equipment PPE remains inside the containment barrier. Selecting the appropriate surface finishes and casework for containment zones is necessary to facilitate the maintenance, cleaning, and decontamination of surfaces within the zone.

Surface finishes also help protect against the stresses associated with activities routinely performed within the containment zone, such as repeated decontamination and frequent high pressure washing in animal containment zones. The heating, ventilation, and air conditioning HVAC systems can be designed to create a defined containment barrier to minimize the spread of infectious aerosols or aerosolized toxins.

These systems, particularly in high containment zones , incorporate secondary containment barriers such as inward directional airflow IDA and high efficiency particulate air HEPA filters for exhaust air.

Facility services include all plumbing, electrical, and other services related to the operation of the containment zone. Essential biosafety equipment is key to ensuring effective containment of pathogens , toxins , and other regulated infectious material. This includes all primary containment devices e. Effluent decontamination systems prevent the release of contaminated liquids into sanitary sewers, and ultimately, the environment. An effluent decontamination system is critical for decontaminating all liquid waste generated in CL3 zones where non-indigenous animal pathogens are handled, large animal containment zones LA zones where prions are handled, and all CL3-Ag and CL4 zones.

This chapter describes the operational practice requirements designed to mitigate risks associated with handling or storing pathogens , toxins , or other regulated infectious material , including infected animals. Operational practice requirements are achieved through specific administrative controls and by performing specific documented procedures.

Although the requirements in this chapter are specified for each containment zone , institutions or organizations may decide to combine certain biosafety program elements e. The majority of requirements in this chapter are to be based on a local risk assessment LRA whether it is indicated in the text or not. A biosafety program is designed to prevent infections, intoxications , and illnesses among personnel and to protect the community and the environment from harm by preventing the release of pathogens or toxins.

The level of detail and complexity of the biosafety program will depend on the nature of the organization i. A key to the success of any biosafety program is a strong commitment and involvement by everyone within the organization, including senior management, supervisors, and individual personnel. The day-to-day management of the biosafety program can be determined internally and responsibilities delegated accordingly.

A biosafety representative s i. A Biosafety Manual to be developed, implemented, kept up to date, made available to personnel inside and outside of containment zone , and to contain institutional biosafety policies, programs, and plans, based on an overarching risk assessment and LRAs. The Biosafety Manual to include:. A biosecurity plan, based on a biosecurity risk assessment, to be developed, implemented, evaluated and improved as necessary, and kept up to date.

The biosecurity plan to include mitigation strategies for the risks associated with:. SOPs specific to the nature of the work being conducted in the containment zone to be developed and documented, including:. The medical surveillance program aims to prevent and detect illnesses related to exposure of personnel to pathogens or toxins and to provide a response mechanism through which potential infections and intoxications can be quickly identified and treated before serious injury, disease , or transmission to the public occurs.

Training is a core element of biosafety and biosecurity , and is essential to the success of the biosafety program. It is critical that personnel be knowledgeable about the hazards associated with the pathogens and toxins present in the work environment and the practices and tools that can protect them from these hazards. The training program encompasses both education i.

Personal protective equipment PPE includes protective equipment and clothing that are designed to minimize the risk of exposure to pathogens and toxins. PPE serves as a last line of defence to prevent exposure in the event of failure in the administrative or engineering controls. The exception to this is in animal cubicles and post mortem rooms PM rooms , where PPE is the primary defence for personnel against exposure. Selection of PPE is determined by a local risk assessment LRA and is specific to both the pathogen s and the work activities to be performed.

In high containment zones , adherence to operational procedures allows inward directional airflow IDA to be maintained and keeps contaminated or potentially contaminated personal protective equipment PPE inside the containment barrier. The following matrix presents essential elements for standard operating procedures SOPs outlining entry and exit procedures. The use of safe work practices when handling infectious material or toxins helps protect personnel from exposure to pathogens and toxins, and helps prevent their release.

Good microbiological laboratory practices are the foundation for all safe work practices involving biological material. In containment zones where infectious material and toxins are handled or stored, safe work practices include the proper use and maintenance of biocontainment systems, biosafety equipment e.

Safe work practices documented in standard operating procedures SOPs can be easily understood and implemented by all personnel. Due to their unpredictable behaviour, especially when ill, in vivo work with pathogens and toxins involving live animals increases the risk associated with any given procedure. In addition, large volumes of contaminated waste are generated in animal containment zones. Special considerations and handling techniques for work with animals help prevent personnel exposure or release of pathogens or toxins where animals are infected or potentially infected with zoonotic pathogens , or are asymptomatic carriers of human pathogens.

Safe work practices for animal work considerations documented in standard operating procedures SOPs can be easily understood and implemented by all personnel. Effective decontamination of waste is critical in all containment zones so that contaminated material is treated and safely disposed of. The principles of sterilization , disinfection , and decontamination are essential for reducing the risk of pathogen and toxin transmission within containment zones, or release to the environment or the community. Decontamination and waste management procedures documented in standard operating procedures SOPs can be easily understood and implemented by all personnel.

In order to promote personnel safety and the containment of pathogens and toxins , plans need to be in place for situations where biosafety or biosecurity issues may arise as the result of an emergency. Emergency situations may include incidents or accidents , medical emergencies, fire, chemical or biological spills, power failure, animal escape, failure of primary containment devices e. An exposure follow-up report documenting the completed investigation, to be submitted to the PHAC within:.

A biosafety program will generate records for most activities. These records provide evidence that a specific activity was performed, document the results achieved, and can also be used for the ongoing improvement of the biosafety program. The requirements presented in Matrices 5. Reports demonstrating the successful completion of these tests are requested by the Public Health Agency of Canada PHAC and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency CFIA in support of applications for a licence for controlled activities with human pathogens and toxins , applications for an animal pathogen import permit , or facility certification or recertification of containment zones.

In addition, test reports will be monitored by the PHAC and the CFIA for ongoing compliance verification, including during on-site inspections and audits. The corresponding physical containment and operational practice requirements from Chapters 3 and 4 are referenced in the individual explanatory note found in the Appendix for each requirement in Matrices 5. The containment level columns indicate the containment levels to which each requirement applies. In certain scenarios, the PHAC or the CFIA may request additional tests, on a case-by-case basis, to demonstrate performance or verification of containment systems other than those tests described in the matrices below.

The following matrix describes the minimal performance and verification tests to be performed by all types of work areas at all containment levels CL2-CL4. In addition to the performance and verification tests to be performed for all containment zones outlined in Matrix 5.

In addition to the performance and verification tests to be performed outlined in Matrices 5. Test reports documenting successful completion of these tests will be requested by the Public Health Agency of Canada PHAC and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency CFIA for a newly commissioned containment zone to support an application for a new licence for controlled activities with human pathogens and toxins , for an application for an animal pathogen import permit for a containment zone that has not previously imported an animal pathogen , or for the initial facility certification for a containment zone intending to conduct activities with non-indigenous animal pathogens.

Retesting of the containment system s is indicated by a change, repair, or modification to the containment device or system; a condition of licence; or a request of the PHAC or the CFIA. The following table provides additional information pertaining to the physical containment, operational practice, and performance and verification testing requirements outlined in Chapters 3, 4, and 5, respectively. Specifically, these notes include a brief explanation of the risk s mitigated by a requirement and typical examples of how the requirement may be achieved.

1. Introduction

Further guidance on the subjects can be found in the Canadian Biosafety Handbook , 2 nd Edition. You will not receive a reply. Skip to main content Skip to "About government" Skip to section menu. Second Edition March 11, Customize for my facility Use this online application to filter the physical and operational requirements of the CBS.

Preface The Government of Canada's Canadian Biosafety Standard CBS , 2 nd Edition, , is a harmonized national standard for the handling or storing of human and terrestrial animal pathogens and toxins in Canada. Ag Agriculture i. Inches of water gauge unit of pressure; 1 in.

Nuestras obras

Glossary It is important to note that while some of the definitions provided in the glossary are universally accepted, many of them were developed specifically for the Canadian Biosafety Standard CBS ; therefore, some definitions may not be applicable to facilities that fall outside of the scope of the CBS. Accident An unplanned event that results in injury, harm, or damage. Administrative area Dedicated room or adjoining rooms that are used for activities that do not involve infectious material and toxins. Administrative areas do not require any containment equipment, systems, or operational practices.

Aerosol A suspension of fine solid particles or liquid droplets in a gaseous medium e. Airborne pathogen A pathogen that is capable of moving through or being carried by the air. Airtight doors can be achieved with inflatable or compression seals. Animal cubicle A room or space designed to house an animal or animals where the room itself serves as primary containment. These spaces are used to house large-sized animals e.

Animal pathogen Any pathogen that causes disease in animals; including those derived from biotechnology. In the context of the Canadian Biosafety Standard , "animal pathogen" refers only to pathogens that cause disease in terrestrial animals; including those that infect avian and amphibian animals, but excluding those that cause disease in aquatic animals and invertebrates.

Animal pathogen import permit A permit issued by the Public Health Agency of Canada or the Canadian Food Inspection Agency for the importation into Canada of: animal pathogens or toxins; animals, animal products, animal by-products, or other organisms carrying an animal pathogen or part of one; under Section 51 a and b of the Health of Animals Regulations.

Animal room A room designed to house animals in primary containment caging. These spaces are used to house only small-sized animals e. Anteroom A room, or series of rooms, inside the containment zone, used to separate "clean" areas from "dirty" areas i. The negative differential air pressures required in containment zones where inward directional airflow is provided can be more effectively maintained through the presence of an anteroom.

Authorized personnel Individuals who have been granted unsupervised access to the containment zone by the containment zone director, biological safety officer, or another individual to whom this responsibility has been assigned. This is dependent on completing training requirements and demonstrating proficiency in the standard operating procedures, as determined to be necessary by the facility. Backdraft protection A system that protects the air supply to the containment zone from contamination in the event of a reversal of airflow.

High efficiency particulate air HEPA filters or isolation dampers are commonly used to prevent contamination from reaching areas of lower containment. Backflow prevention A system that protects the water supply to the containment zone from contamination. Many types of backflow devices also have test ports so that they can be checked to ensure that they are functioning properly. Biocontainment See "containment". Biological material Pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms, proteins, and nucleic acids, as well as any biological matter that may contain microorganisms, proteins, nucleic acids, or parts thereof.

Examples include, but are not limited to, bacteria, viruses, fungi, prions, toxins, genetically modified organisms, nucleic acids, tissue samples, diagnostic specimens, live vaccines, and isolates of a pathogen e. Biological safety cabinet BSC A primary containment device that provides protection for personnel, the environment, and the product depending on BSC class , when working with biological material. Biological safety officer BSO An individual designated for overseeing the facility's biosafety and biosecurity practices. Biosafety Containment principles, technologies, and practices that are implemented to prevent unintentional exposure to infectious material and toxins, or their accidental release.

Biosafety Manual A facility-specific manual that describes the core elements of a biosafety program e. Biosecurity Security measures designed to prevent the loss, theft, misuse, diversion, or intentional release of pathogens, toxins, and other related assets e. Biosecurity risk assessment A risk assessment in which the pathogens, toxins, infectious material, and other related assets e.

The "clean" change area is considered to be free from contamination when entry and exit procedures are routinely followed. In high containment zones, the "clean" change area is located outside the containment barrier. Closed system An apparatus or process system designed to contain biological material and prevent its release into the surrounding environment.

Commissioning A process whereby a newly constructed containment zone, or a newly modified or renovated containment zone, is subjected to a series of performance and verification tests to ensure that the finished containment zone, including equipment and containment systems, will operate in accordance with the physical design intent and specifications and is ready to be put into operation, or resume activities involving pathogens and toxins, respectively.

Community Encompasses both human i. Containment The combination of physical design parameters and operational practices that protect personnel, the immediate work environment, and the community from exposure to biological material. The term "biocontainment" is also used in this context. Containment barrier The boundary between "clean" and "dirty" areas i.

Where inward directional airflow is provided, a physical containment barrier of air is established to protect against airborne or aerosolized infectious material or toxins from reaching the "clean" areas. Containment level CL Minimum physical containment and operational practice requirements for handling infectious material or toxins safely in laboratory, large scale production, and animal work environments. There are four containment levels ranging from a basic laboratory containment level 1 [CL1] to the highest level of containment containment level 4 [CL4].

INDUSTRIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGY M / — Università di Bologna

Containment system Dedicated equipment that functions to provide and maintain containment. This includes, but is not limited to, primary containment devices e. Containment zone A physical area that meets the requirements for a specified containment level. A containment zone can be a single room e.

Dedicated support areas, including anterooms with showers and "clean" and "dirty" change areas, where required , are considered to be part of the containment zone. Contamination The undesired presence of infectious material or toxins on a surface e. Controlled access system A physical or electronic system designed to restrict access to authorized personnel only. Controlled activities Any of the following activities referred to in Section 7 1 of the Human Pathogens and Toxins Act : possessing, handling or using a human pathogen or toxin; producing a human pathogen or toxin; storing a human pathogen or toxin; permitting any person access to a human pathogen or toxin; transferring a human pathogen or toxin; importing or exporting a human pathogen or toxin; releasing or otherwise abandoning a human pathogen or toxin; or disposing of a human pathogen or toxin.

Critical door Any door directly located on the containment barrier of a containment zone, animal cubicle, or post mortem room where inward directional airflow is required. Culture The in vitro propagation of microorganisms, tissue cells, or other living matter under controlled conditions e.

In the context of the Canadian Biosafety Standard , "cell culture" refers to cells derived from a human or animal source. Decontamination The process by which materials and surfaces are rendered safe to handle and reasonably free of microorganisms, toxins, or prions; this may be accomplished through disinfection, inactivation, or sterilization.

Decontamination technology Equipment proven by validation to render materials safe to handle and reasonably free of microorganisms, toxins, or prions. Examples include autoclaves, incinerators, tissue digesters, and effluent decontamination systems. Deep seal trap A plumbing drain trap that has an effective head or depth that is sufficient to maintain a water seal, in accordance with air pressure differentials i. These traps have a water seal greater than mm 4 inches in depth, and a trap seal of to mm 5 to 6 inches.

The "dirty" change area is considered to be contaminated or potentially contaminated during normal operations. Disease A disorder of structure or function in a living human or animal, or one of its parts, resulting from infection or intoxication. It is typically manifested by distinguishing signs and symptoms. Disinfection Process that eliminates most forms of living microorganisms; disinfection is much less lethal to infectious material than sterilization.

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Dual-use potential Qualities of a pathogen or toxin that allow it to be either used for legitimate scientific applications e. Dunk tank A disinfectant-filled vessel located at or on the containment barrier that allows for the safe removal of material and samples from containment zones via surface decontamination achieved through immersion.

Effluent decontamination system Equipment connected to the drain plumbing used to decontaminate, through heat or chemical means, the liquid waste i. Emergency Response Plan ERP A document outlining the actions to be taken and the parties responsible in emergency situations such as a spill, exposure, release of infectious material or toxins, animal escape, personnel injury or illness, power failure, fire, explosion, or other emergency situations e.

Emerging animal disease A new infectious disease resulting from the evolution or change of an existing pathogenic agent, a known infectious disease spreading to a new geographic area or population, or a previously unrecognized pathogenic agent or disease diagnosed for the first time and which has a significant impact on animal health. Emerging animal disease pathogens are handled as non-indigenous animal pathogens due to the high risk of serious negative effects associated with these pathogens. Exporting The activity of shipping e.

Exposure Contact with, or close proximity to, infectious material or toxins that may result in infection or intoxication, respectively. Routes of exposure include inhalation, ingestion, inoculation, and absorption. Exposure follow-up report A tool used to report and document incident occurrence and investigation information for an exposure incident previously notified to the Public Health Agency of Canada. Exposure notification report A tool used to notify and document preliminary information to the Public Health Agency of Canada of an exposure incident.

Facility plural: facilities Structures or buildings, or defined areas within structures or buildings, where infectious material or toxins are handled or stored. This could include individual research and diagnostic laboratories, large scale production areas, or animal housing zones. A facility could also be a suite or building containing more than one of these areas.

Facility certification The formal acknowledgement from the Canadian Food Inspection Agency CFIA that a containment zone or facility where imported animal pathogens will be handled or stored complies with the physical containment, operational practice, and performance and verification testing requirements described in the Canadian Biosafety Standard. Recertification refers to the renewal of the facility certification issued by the CFIA following a streamlined review process.

Good microbiological laboratory practices A basic laboratory code of practice applicable to all types of activities with biological material. These practices serve to protect workers and prevent contamination of the environment, and the samples in use. Gross contamination The accumulation of organic material e. Handling or storing "Handling or storing" pathogens, toxins, or infectious material includes possessing, handling, using, producing, storing, permitting access to, transferring, importing, exporting, releasing, disposing of, or abandoning such material.

This includes all controlled activities involving human pathogens and toxins specified in Section 7 1 of the Human Pathogens and Toxins Act. High concentration Infectious material or toxins that are concentrated to a degree that increases the risks associated with manipulating the material i. High containment zones Containment zones i. Due to the effects of impaction, diffusion, and interception, HEPA filters are even more efficient at trapping and retaining particles that are either smaller or larger than 0.

Importing The activity of bringing e. Incident An event or occurrence with the potential of causing injury, harm, infection, intoxication, disease, or damage. Incidents can involve infectious material, infected animals, or toxins, including a spill, exposure, release of infectious material or toxins, animal escape, personnel injury or illness, missing infectious material or toxins, unauthorized entry into the containment zone, power failure, fire, explosion, flood, or other crisis situations e.

Incidents include accidents and near misses.

Biotechnology

Infectious material Any isolate of a pathogen or any biological material that contains human or animal pathogens and, therefore, poses a risk to human or animal health. In situ Latin for "on site" or "in place"; describes a fixed location at which a procedure or experiment is conducted. Interlock A device or mechanism for coordinating the function of components e. Intoxication A substance-induced disorder or disease resulting in a symptomatic or asymptomatic condition, or other physiological change resulting from an exposure i.

This includes a similar response from exposure to a synthetically produced microbial toxin. Inventory A list of biological assets associated with a containment zone identifying pathogens, toxins, and other infectious material in storage both inside and outside of the containment zone. In vitro Latin for "within glass"; describes experimentation involving components of a living organism within an artificial environment e.

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In vivo Latin for "within the living"; describes experimentation conducted within the whole living organism e. Inward directional airflow IDA Air that always flows from areas of lower containment or lower contamination risk to areas of higher containment or higher contamination risk, as the result of a negative air pressure differential within the containment zone created by a ventilation system.

Isolation dampers also provide backdraft protection in the event of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning HVAC system failure or a reversal of airflow, and prevent puff-back in certain types of biological safety cabinets. Laboratory An area within a facility or the facility itself where biological material is handled for scientific or medical purposes.

Laboratory work area Area inside a containment zone designed and equipped for in vitro research, diagnostics, and teaching purposes. Large animal containment zone LA zone Animal containment zone comprised of two or more co-located or adjoining rooms of equal containment level where animals are housed in animal cubicles i. An LA zone may include, for example, large-sized animals, such as livestock or deer, housed in cubicles or, cubicles where small-sized animals, such as mice or raccoons, are housed in open caging i. Post mortem rooms, where present, are considered to be part of an LA zone.

Large scale Activities generally involving volumes of toxins or the in vitro culture of infectious material on a scale of 10 litres or greater. This could be a single vessel with a volume of 10 litres or greater, or based on the processes and pathogen used, could be multiple vessels with a total volume of 10 litres or greater. Large-sized animal Refers to the physical size of the animal; large-sized animals are generally too large to be housed in primary containment caging, and are therefore housed in an animal cubicle.

Examples include cows, horses, moose, deer, and sheep. Large volume A volume of infectious material or toxins that is sufficiently large to increase the risk associated with the manipulation of the material i. Licence An authorization to conduct one or more controlled activities with human pathogens or toxins issued by the Public Health Agency of Canada under Section 18 of the Human Pathogens and Toxins Act.

Limited access Access that is only permitted to authorized personnel and other authorized visitors through either operational means e. Local risk assessment LRA Site-specific risk assessment used to identify hazards based on the infectious material or toxins in use and the activities being performed. This analysis provides risk mitigation and risk management strategies to be incorporated into the physical containment design and operational practices of the facility. Long-term storage In the context of the Canadian Biosafety Standard , the possession of material i. Medical surveillance program A program designed to prevent and detect personnel illness related to exposure to infectious material or toxins.

The focus of the program is primarily preventive, but provides a response mechanism through which a potential infection or intoxication can be identified and treated before serious injury or disease occurs. Microorganism A cellular or non-cellular microbiological entity, capable of replication or transferring genetic material and that cannot be reasonably detected by the naked human eye. GM crops also provide a number of ecological benefits, if not used in excess.

Industrial biotechnology known mainly in Europe as white biotechnology is the application of biotechnology for industrial purposes, including industrial fermentation. It includes the practice of using cells such as microorganisms , or components of cells like enzymes , to generate industrially useful products in sectors such as chemicals, food and feed, detergents, paper and pulp, textiles and biofuels.

By using renewable raw materials to produce a variety of chemicals and fuels, industrial biotechnology is actively advancing towards lowering greenhouse gas emissions and moving away from a petrochemical-based economy. The environment can be affected by biotechnologies, both positively and adversely. Vallero and others have argued that the difference between beneficial biotechnology e. The regulation of genetic engineering concerns approaches taken by governments to assess and manage the risks associated with the use of genetic engineering technology, and the development and release of genetically modified organisms GMO , including genetically modified crops and genetically modified fish.

There are differences in the regulation of GMOs between countries, with some of the most marked differences occurring between the USA and Europe. For example, a crop not intended for food use is generally not reviewed by authorities responsible for food safety. Depending on the coexistence regulations, incentives for cultivation of GM crops differ. Each successful application is generally funded for five years then must be competitively renewed. Graduate students in turn compete for acceptance into a BTP; if accepted, then stipend, tuition and health insurance support is provided for two or three years during the course of their Ph.

British Medical Association. March Retrieved March 21, From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Biotechnology disambiguation. Use of living systems and organisms to develop or make useful products. Main article: History of biotechnology. This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. October Main articles: Regulation of genetic engineering and Regulation of the release of genetic modified organisms.

Biology portal Technology portal Agriculture portal Food portal Medicine portal. Retrieved on March 20, Archived from the original PDF on August 7, Retrieved December 29, Retrieved October 30, Archived January 23, , at the Wayback Machine. Cleveland, Ohio: BeerBooks. Encyclopedia of Science and Religion. Retrieved December 7, Introduction to Biotechnology. Biotechnology: The Science and the Business.


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But what do the different colours of biotechnology have to offer the pharmaceutical industry?. Pharmaceutical Technology Europe, 1. EMBO Reports. White biotechnology. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved August 27, What Will It Do? Feldbaum C February Some history should be repeated". May 30, Retrieved June 7, EuroGentest Network of Excellence Project. September 11, Archived from the original on February 4, Retrieved August 10, Transgenic Plants and World Agriculture. Washington: National Academy Press. International Life Sciences Institute.

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Volume 11a deals with wastewater treatment, Volume 11b with soil decontamination, and Volume 11c gives a profound overview on solid waste treatment, off-gas treatment, and the preparation of drinking water. All of these topics are of great relevance for a sustainable development. Based on the presentation of general aspects special emphasis is given to the description of processes and applications. Free Access. Summary PDF Request permissions.