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  1. Authorship of the Bible
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New Testament Studies. View all. The Lost Books of the Bible. An Introduction to New Testament Christology. Biblical Exegesis in the Apostolic Period. Jesus Christ and the Temple. The Treasury of David. Sketches of Jewish Social Life. The Historical Reliability of the Gospels. Is the New Testament Reliable? Invitation to the Gospels. The Search for the Twelve Apostles. Harmony of the Gospels. Synonyms of the New Testament. Reading the New Testament: An Introduction.

Introducing the New Testament. New Testament and Criticism. Moral Teaching of the New Testament. Introduction To the New Testament. It is simply and clearly written, with numerous illustrations and charts, glossary of terms, Scripture, author and topical indexes, a comprehensive bibliography, and a helpful appendix listing more than 1, English translations of the Bible.

This revised edition of General Introduction promises to be a useful book for years to come. It is a pleasure to commend it to all who seek to know more about the nature, background, and history of the greatest book ever written, the infallible and inerrant Word of God.

Foreword to the First Edition This general introduction to the Bible is timely and significant. Numerous are the questions currently being asked concerning the origin and transmission of the Bible. It is to these inquiries and related problems that the authors of this volume devote their research and scholarship in the following pages. Never before has any generation had available so many versions of the Scriptures. Faced with a variation of translations the average reader of the Bible rightfully raises questions concerning the origin, authority, and canonicity of the books that constitute the Bible as well as the accuracy with which they have been transmitted throughout the centuries.

What distinguishes the Bible from other ancient literature? If the books of the Bible were produced only by the initiative and ability of the authors, then their writings would be primarily human productions. If these books were dictated by Godand I know of no biblical scholar who maintains thisview then they would be primarily divine products. A recognition of both the human and divine aspects in the writing of the Scriptures is essential for regarding the Bible as unique in being a human-divine product.

When were the books of the Bible recognized as authoritative, and by whom? Did the Israelites and the Christian church declare the books of the Bible authoritative, or did they recognize them as divinely inspired and on that basis regard them as valuable and authoritative? How were the books of the Bible transmitted? Did scribes correct and change the Scriptures, or did they transmit them with care and accuracy?

General Commentaries

How reliable are our present versions when compared with the oldest manuscripts of the Scriptures available to modern scholarship? Why do some Bibles include the Apocrypha and others omit them? On what basis do the limits of the canon vary? The authors of this book are to be commended for their consideration of these questions so frequently discussed in regard to the Bible. Refreshingly significant is the attitude reflected. Modern scholarship that gives serious consideration to the attitude and teaching of Jesus concerning these problems related to the Bible deserves commendation.

Preface to the Revised Edition Since the first edition of A General Introduction to the Bible , significant developments have necessitated a more thorough treatment of the questions about the inspiration, authority, and inerrancy of Scripture. The discoveries at Ebla and Nag Hamadi have occasioned additional discussion relating to the canon and text of Scripture. This revised and expanded edition of General Introduction has been reorganized into four sections: inspiration, canonization, transmission, and translation.

In addition to revising and updating all of the chapters, some completely new chapters have been added chaps. Several chapters have been substantially enlarged chaps. Numerous charts have been revised or added. Of special interest are the new charts on the New Testament chap. The emergence of the debate among proponents of various textual traditions that incorporate the majority text and eclectic text methodologies is an important new topic of analysis in this edition as well. Since the first edition, numerous new translations of the Bible have been produced, including those from almost every major private group and religious body.

Hence, the section on Bible translations has been separated and significantly expanded. In all the various areas of general introduction to the Bible, efforts have been made to offer a comprehensive survey and critical evaluation of representative positions. The result of more than thirty years of study in this area has deepened our conviction that the committee translations of the English Bible are careful renditions of the Hebrew and Greek texts that accurately transmit the infallible and inerrant Word of God.

Preface to the First Edition This book on general biblical introduction covers the three main areas of the general field: inspiration, canonization, and transmission of the biblical text. It is not concerned as such with the problems of authorship, date, and purpose of the individual books of the Bible, as these are the subjects of special biblical introduction. This work is designed to give a general survey of the process of the transmission of the Bible from God to man. It expounds the claim that God inspired the biblical books, that men of God wrote them, and that the Fathers Hebrew and Christian collected and transmitted them to future generations.

The bulk of the material considered here deals with the transmission of the Bible from the earliest centuries to the present time. It attempts to answer in the affirmative the all-important question: Is the Bible used today and the Hebrew and Greek texts upon which it is based a faithful representation of the text as originally written by the authors of the Old and New Testaments? The plural form of biblos is biblia, and by the second century A. Christians were using this latter word to describe their writings. Biblia gave birth to the Latin word of the same spelling, biblia, which was in turn transliterated into the Old French biblia by the same process.

The word is thus the product of four stages of transliteration and transmission. The term Bible is often used synonymously with Scripture or Word of God see chap. The Hebrew word for testament is berith, meaning a covenant, or compact, or arrangement between two parties. The Greek word diathk is often translated testament in the King James Version. The Old Testament was first called the covenant in Moses day Ex.

Later, Jeremiah announced that God would make a new covenant with His people Jer. Hence, it is for Christians that the former part of the Bible is called the Old Covenant Testament , and the latter is called the New Covenant. Technically,however,theEnglishterm testamentrequiresactiononthepartofonepersononly theonemakingthetestamentorwill.

Theheirs agreementisnotnecessarytothedispositionofthetestament. In the Old Testament Christ is: in shadow in pictures in type in ritual latent prophesied implicitly revealed. In the New Testament Christ is: in substance in person in truth in reality patent present explicitly revealed.

The basic difference is that the books are grouped differently see discussion in chap. Genesis A. Former Prophets 1. Joshua 2. Exodus 3. Leviticus 2. Judges 4. Numbers 3. Samuel 5. Deuteronomy 4. Kings B. Latter Prophets 1. Isaiah 2. Jeremiah 3. Ezekiel 4. The Twelve. The Writings Kethuvim A. Poetical Books 1. Psalms 2. Job 3. Proverbs B.

Authorship of the Bible

Five Rolls Megilloth 1. Ruth 2. Song of Songs 3. Ecclesiastes 4. Lamentations 5. Esther C. Historical Books 1. Daniel 2.

New Testament Essentials - InterVarsity Press

Ezra-Nehemiah 3. Ifso, thenumeration24mustbeoldernotyoungerthanthenumeration22,andmustlikewisegobackatleastto thefirstcenturyBC. Kahle, eds. Elliger and W. Rudolph, eds. This is not the arrangement as it appears in Alfred Rahlfs, ed. Some believe a threefold division may be implied in the words of Jesus in Luke All the things which are written about Me in the law of Moses and the Prophets and the Psalms must be fulfilled.

The remaining four books contain hymns to God, and precepts for the conduct of human life. It is possible that this threefold division is based on the official status of the writers in a descending order: Moses the lawgiver appeared first, with his five books; next came the prophets, with their eight books; finally, the nonprophets, or wise men, kings, and princes, appear with their books.

In light of that it would seem that the older breakdown of books was twenty-two rather than twenty-four. The books of Ruth and Lamentations were probably written by the authors of Judges and Jeremiah respectively and only later removed from their original position to form, with Ecclesiastes, Esther, and Song of Songs, the five books to be read during the festial year.

That feature would also leave a more symmetrical arrangement of books in the canon, with three books in each of the three subsections of the Kethuvim, namely, the poetical books, the five rolls, and the historical books. The overall number twenty-two would thus correspond with Josephuss count, as well as the number of letters in the Hebrew alphabet, indicating that the leaders of Israel considered twenty-two books to be a complete collection, as twenty-two letters formed the complete Hebrew alphabet.

This translation, known as the Septuagint LXX , introduced some basic changes in the format of the books: some of the books were reclassified, others regrouped, and some were renamed see the chart at the end of this chapter. The Alexandrian tradition divided the Old Testament according to subject matter, which is the basis of the modern classification of five books of Law, twelve books of History, five books of Poetry, and seventeen books of Prophecy. PsalmswasthefirstandlargestbookinthisportionoftheHebrewScripturesandmayhavebecomethe unofficialnomenclaturefortheentiresection;hence,itcouldbeusedhereasareferencetothesectionasa whole.

The order of the books varies in the early canonical lists, but the grouping of the books remains the same throughout.

The Law Pentateuch 5 Poetry5 books books 1. Genesis 1. Job 2. Exodus 2. Psalms 3. Leviticus 3. Proverbs 4. Numbers 4. Ecclesiastes 5. Deuteronomy 5. Song of Solomon History12 Prophets17 Books books 1. Joshua A. Major B. Minor 2. Judges 1.

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Isaiah 1. Hosea 3. Jeremiah 2. Joel 4. Lamentations 3. Amos 5. Obadiah 6. Daniel 5. Jonah 7. Micah 8. Nahum 9. Habakkuk Ezra 9. Zephaniah Nehemiah Haggai Esther Zechariah Malachi To that arrangement the early Christian Fathers added the books of the New Testament, which were classified in four groups: Gospels four books , History one book , Epistles twenty-one books , and Prophecy one book.

Further, the twenty-one Epistles were subdivided into the Pauline thirteen 14 and the General eight. Matthew 1. Acts 2. Mark 3. Luke 4. General8 books A. Pauline13 books 1. Hebrews 1. Romans 2. James 2. Galatians 5. Ephesians 6. Forexample,theGospelsweresometimesplacedinothersequences,andonsomeoccasionsthe GeneralEpistlesappearedbeforethePauline. IntheEasternchurchthetendencywastoclassifythemasfourteenPaulineEpistles includingHebrews andsevenGeneral;theWesternchurchtendedtofollowtheclassificationaspresentedabove.

Philippians 7. Colossians 8. Jude 8. Titus Jerome, who translated the Latin Vulgate c. In fact, any other classification would no doubt have been unacceptable to Latin Christians. As a matter of fact, the fourfold division of the Old Testament and the similar division of the New Testament have been the standard ever since. As a result, the divisions of the modern English Bible follow a topical rather than an official order i. Yet, within that overall topical structure, there is a semichronological listing of the books from Genesis through Revelation.

The order as we have it is not, however, purely arbitrary. In fact, the order shows evidence of being purposefully directed, at least insofar as it falls into meaningful categories, because it presents the historical unfolding of the drama of redemptive revelation.

Because redemption and revelation center about the Person of Jesus Christ, it may be observed that the several sections of Scriptures form a Christocentric structure Luke , 44; John ; Heb. That is, Christ is not only the theme of both Testaments of the Bible, as mentioned above, but He may also be seen as the subject in the sequence of each of the eight sections of the Scriptures. The historical books illustrate how the nation was being prepared to carry out its redemptive mission. In order for the chosen nation to be fully prepared for the task, it had to conquer its land Joshua-Ruth , to be established under its first king, Saul 1 Samuel , and later to expand its empire under David and Solomon 2 Samuel 1 Kings After Solomons reign, the kingdom was divided 1 Kings 11ff.

However, redemptive hopes were not lost, for God protected and preserved His people Esther so He could cause them to return Ezra and their holy city to be rebuilt Nehemiah. In the law the foundation is laid for Christ; in the historical books the nation takes root in preparation for Christ; in the poetical books the people look up in aspiration for Christ; in the prophetical books they look forward in expectation of Christ.

The law views the moral life of Israel, history records their national life, poetry reveals their spiritual life, and prophecy depicts their prophetical or Messianic life and expectations. The gospels of the New Testament bring that prophetic expectation to a historical manifestation in Christ. There the promised Savior becomes present; the concealed becomes revealed; the Logos enters the cosmos John ,14 as Christ is made manifest in the flesh.

The gospels give a fourfold manifestation of Christ: He is seen in His sovereignty Matthew , ministry Mark , humanity Luke , and deity John. The manifestation was limited in Jesus day for the most part, to the lost sheep of the house of Israel Matt. After Christ died and rose again, the disciples were commissioned to carry the account of His manifestation to the end of the earth NKJV as told in the book of Acts. There is recorded propagation of faith in Christ as He had commanded: And you shall be My witnesses both in Jerusalem and in all Judea and Samaria, and even to the remotest part of the earth Acts The gospels give the manifestation of Christ, Acts the propagation of faith in Him, and the epistles the interpretation of His person and work.

The gospels and Acts record the deeds of Christ and His disciples, but the epistles reveal His doctrine as it was taught by the apostles. The former give the historic foundation for New Testament Christianity; the latter give the didactic interpretation and application of it. The climactic chapter of Christocentric revelation comes in the final book of the New Testament, Revelation, where all things are brought to a consummation in Christ. Whereas the gate to the tree of life is closed in Genesis, it is opened forevermore in Revelation.

All things are to be summed up in Him Col. It has two Testaments, better called covenants or agreements between God and His people. Those two parts of the Bible are inseparably related: the New Testament is in the Old concealed, and the Old is in the New revealed. Down through the centuries the Bible has been subdivided into sections and has had several different arrangements of its books.

The Hebrew Bible came to have a threefold division Law, Prophets, and Writings , so categorized according to the official position of the writer. However, beginning with the Septuagint and continuing in the Latin and modern English translations, the Old Testament has been given a fourfold topical structure. When viewed carefully, those sections of the Bible are obviously not arbitrarily put together. Instead, they form a meaningful and purposeful whole, as they convey the progressive unfolding of the theme of the Bible in the person of Christ. The law gives the foundation for Christ, history shows the preparation for Him.

In poetry there is an aspiration for Christ and in prophecy an expectation of Him. The Gospels of the New Testament record the historical manifestation of Christ, the Acts relate the propagation of Christ, the Epistles give the interpretation of Him, and in Revelation is found the consummation of all things in Christ. Just what is meant by and what is included in that claim is the subject of the first link and, in that sense, the most important link in the chain of communication from God to us. It is only proper that the Bible should be permitted to witness about its own nature.

Once the claim is understood clearly, the character and credentials should be checked carefully; but the Scriptures should not be denied the opportunity to testify on their own. In order to clarify this possible confusion three terms need to be distinguished. First, inspiration, derived from inspirare Latin , means to breathe upon or into something. By extension the term is used of analogous mental phenomena; hence a sudden spontaneous idea is called an inspiration.

Theologically, inspiration is often used for the condition of being directly under divine influence and it is viewed as the equivalent of the Greek term theopneustia, or its adjective theopneustos cf. It came into prominence in the post-Reformation era when possession by a divine spirit pneuma was regarded as necessarily accompanied by the intense stimulation of the emotions. The nearest approach to this typically Greek idea of inspiration as a complete surrender of the mind and will to the overpowering Holy Spirit is in 2 Peter The term does not imply a particular mode of inspiration, such as some form of divine dictation.

Nor does it imply the suspension of the normal cognative faculties of the human authors. On the other hand, it does imply something quite different from poetic inspiration. It is an error to omit the divine element from the term implied by theopneustos as is done in rendering the phrase every inspired Scripture or every Scripture inspired in the American Standard Version ASV of , and the New English Bible NEB of The sacred Scriptures are all expressive.

Actuallyitisnot,becausewefirst askonlywhattheBibleclaimsaboutitselfandthenwhetherornotitistrue. Thelatterisproperlyaquestion ofapologeticsandnotofbiblicalintroduction;nevertheless,itwillbetreatedbrieflyinchapter The sacred Scriptures are the God-breathed revelation of God which result in their practical outworking in life 2 Tim. The Biblical Data This brings the subject to the biblical teaching itself.

In 2 Timothy the apostle Paul declares that all Scripture is inspired by God and profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, for training in righteousness; that the man of God may be adequate, equipped for every good work. There are four key terms crucial to a proper exegesis of this passage. The first term is all pasa. This term can be translated every or all. It is not essential that one term is better than the other because both refer to the entire canon of the Old Testament, which Timothy had known from his youth cf. This means a writing or written document.

It is The second term is scripture graph clear from the usage of this term that the locus of inspiration is in the written record rather than in the ideas or concepts or even oral expressions of the writer. Although the word graph itself can have a more general usage than a canonical writing, nevertheless, the context clearly indicates that the entire Old Testament is in view see also Rom.

Third, since there is no verb stated in the text, the word inspired theopneustos is the critical term in the passage. The term theopneustos is an adjective that belongs to a special class called verbal adjectives. As such, it may be viewed either as a predicate adjective the implied verb is preceeds the adjective or an attributive adjective the implied verb is follows the adjective. It does not mean, as the English word inspire might imply, that God breathed in the word but rather that the very words were breathed out see above definitions.

A parallel is found in the words of Jesus who referred to what is written as every word that proceeds out of the mouth of God Matt. What is of central importance in this passage is the relationship of theopneustos to graph. It is grammatically possible to take theopneustos as descriptive of graph; all inspired scripture is of God attributive adjective.

Nevertheless, there are several reasons for rejecting this possibility in favor of the much better substantiated all Scripture is inspired of God predicate adjective. Several reasons support this conclusion. The usual position of the attributive adjective construction would be theopneustos graph instead of graph theopneustos. The absence of a verb suggests that theopneustos God-breathed and ophelimos profitable are to be viewed in the same manner, for they are both the same and ophelimos cannot be translated attributively without leaving the sentence without a predicate.

Words joined by kai and are usually understood as being joined by the conjunction e. The use of theopneustos as an attributive adjective would stress the usefulness of Scripture rather than its inspiration. The use of theopneustos as an attributive would leave open the possibility of some Fourth, grammatically the word profitable ophelimos can either mean the Scriptures are inspired because they are profitable attributive or the Scriptures are profitable because they are inspired predicate.

The context, however, would confirm the conclusion that the Scriptures are profitable because they are inspired. Thus, they are useful because of what they are: their intrinsic quality produces results. Hence the translation All Scripture is inspired shows that because they are God-breathed, they are therefore useful ophelimos for the work of the ministry, not the reverse.

Some implications of this translation of 2 Timothy may be drawn. Inspiration deals with the objective text of Scripture, not the subjective intention of the writer. The doctrine of Scripture applies to all or every Scripture, that is, the Bible in part or in whole is the Word of God. The Scriptures are the very spirated breathed out Word of God. The form and content of Scripture are the very words of God. This does not mean that each individual word is inspired as such but only as part of a whole sentence or unit of meaning.

There is no implication in Scripture of an atomistic inspiration of each word but only of a holistic inspiration of all words used. Just as an individual word has no meaning apart from its use in a given context, so individual words of Scripture are not inspired apart from their use in a whole sentence. In 2 Peter what the apostle Peter asserts is more than the divine origin of Scripture as 2 Tim. Here he adds to the understanding of how God produced the Scriptures. This was accomplished through the instrumentality of men who spoke from God. More specifically, these spokesmen were moved along by the Holy Spirit cf.

Acts In the context of this passage, Peter has assured his readers that what he was making known to them was not by cleverly devised tales mythos v. Instead, it was the prophetic word made more sure v. Here is an implicit affirmation of the authority certainty of the prophetic word presented by eyewitnesses Peter, James, John of the Lord Matt.

No prophecy was ever made by an act of human will, but men moved by the Holy Spirit spoke from God 2 Peter So, in biblical terminology, inspiration is the process by which Spirit-moved writers recorded God-breathed writings. Hence, when inspiration is extended to the total process, it includes both the writer and the writings; but when it is limited to its biblical usage as in 2 Tim. That is well summarized in Hebrews God. John This passage is important because in it Jesus uses the Scriptures, Torah Law , it is written, word of God, and cannot be broken interchangeably.

The phrase cannot be broken outhenai means cannot be destroyed, abolished, or done away with cf. Thus the Scriptures are viewed as the indestructible Word of God. The Biblical Process The whole process of communication from God to us begins with the matter of divine revelation. First, God spoke to the prophets. This was done in many and various ways Heb. God sometimes spoke to the prophets by angels, as He did to Abraham in Genesis 18 and to Lot in Genesis God also spoke to the prophets in dreams Dan.

On occasion God used miracles to speak to the prophets for instance, Moses and the burning bush Ex. Even nature was used to speak to the psalmist Ps. Sometimes God spoke in an audible voice 1 Sam. No doubt the most common method God used was the inner voice of the individuals conscience and communion with God. That is probably what is most often meant when the prophets write, And the word of the Lord came unto me saying. The priests discovered the will of God by means of the Urim and Thummim Ex. Even casting lots was designated as a means by which God indicated His will Prov. Finally, some of the prophets received divine communication from the study of other prophetic writings Dan.

God not only spoke to the prophets in various ways, but He spoke in their words whether written or oral Heb. That is, the prophets messages were Gods message; their voices were Gods voice. God was saying what they were saying; or, to put it more precisely, they were saying what God wanted said. This is verified in a general way by 2 Peter and Hebrews , which indicate that the oral message of the prophets came from God; it was Gods word given through the prophets mouths. This is borne out in particular by the prophetic formulas, as each prophet introduced his oral message by statements such as Thus says the Lord, The word of the Lord, The Lord spoke see chaps.

There are three: 1. Divine causality. The prime mover in inspiration is God: No prophecy was ever made by an act of human will, but men moved by the Holy Spirit spoke from God 2 Peter In other words, God moved, and the prophet mouthed the truths; God revealed, and man recorded His word. The Bible is Gods word in the sense that it originates with Him and is authorized by Him, even though it is articulated by men. God speaks in their written records. Prophetic agency. The prophets played an important role in the overall process of inspiration; they were the means by which God spoke.

The word of God was written by men of God. God used persons to convey His propositions. In other words, as J. Packer perceptively observes, there God exercised concursive operation in, with and through the free working of mans own mind. We are to think of the Spirits inspiring activity, and, for that matter, of all His regular operations in and upon human personality, as to use an old but valuable technical term concursive; that is, as exercised in, through and by means of the writers own activity, in such a way that their thinking and writing was both free and spontaneous on their part and divinely elicited and controlled, and what they wrote was not only their own work but also Gods work.

God prepared the prophets by training, experience, gifts of grace, and, if need be, by direct revelation to utter His word. By it [inspiration], the Spirit of God, flowing confluently with the providentially and graciously determined work of men, spontaneously producing under the Divine directions the writings appointed them, gives the product a Divine quality unattainable by human powers alone. Thus the divine influence did not restrict human activity but rather enabled the human authors to communicate the divine message accurately. Scriptural authority is the final product of Gods causality and the prophetic agency.

Hence, the Bible is a divinely authoritative book. God moved the prophets in such a way as to breathe out literally, spirate their writings. In other words, God spoke to the prophets and is speaking in their writings. Although some might argue that the prophetic model of inspiration is inadequate,10 in order to shift the basis of the believers authority from Scripture to some other locus, Carl F.

Henry rightly observes that the church is neither the locus of divine revelation, nor the source of divine inspiration, nor the seat of infallibility. Rather, the church has the task of transmitting, translating, and expounding the prophetic-apostolic Scriptures. Therefore, this definition of inspiration is suggested: Inspiration is that mysterious process by which the divine causality worked through the human prophets without destroying their individual personalities and styles to produce divinely authoritative and inerrant writings.

It is interpretation hermeneutics. The Hebrew word for revelation, galah, to uncover, and the Greek word apocalyptein, to unveil, are roughly identical in meaning. Along with their. ClarkPinnock,TheScripturePrinciple,uncriticallyacceptsthisnotion,stating,TheBibleis morethanprophecy,andalthoughdirectdivinespeechispartoftherecord,therearemanyotherkindsof communicationaswell,someofthemmoreindirectandambiguous p. Achtemeierhascalledattentiontotheinadequacyofthepropheticmodelforrepresentingthebiblical categoryofinspirationinitsfulness p. This notion was contained in the Latin revelare to reveal , from which the English word revelation is derived.

As it relates to Scripture, all these terms refer to a divine disclosure. In the ultimate sense, God gives the revelation or disclosure of truth; man can have an interpretation or discovery of that truth. Some scholars,such as John Macquarrie and Leon Morris, have attempted to extend revelation to the experiences of believers in subsequent generations, calling it repetitive revelation as opposed to primordial, classical, or formative revelation in the Scriptures.

Inspiration is the means God used to achieve His revelation in the Bible. Inspiration involves man in an active sense, whereas revelation is solely the activity of God. In inspiration, the prophet received from God what he in turn related to others. Inspiration as a total process includes both the prophet and the product of his pen. In revelation God unveils truth; by interpretation man understands that truth. Even though the three concepts are interrelated in the total process of Gods communication, they are quite distinguishable.

They form three necessary links in the chain from God to us: 1 revelation is the fact of divine communication, 2 inspiration is the means of divine communication, and 3 interpretation is the process of understanding that divine communication. Foratreatmentofthetheologicalissuesinvolvedintheinterpretationofthe Bible,seeEarlD. IlluminationasdescribedinScripture 1Cor. Although the biblical concept of inspiration has been outlined in general, several important questions must be discussed about inspiration in particular.

Includes essays on Religion from leading Scholars in the fields. Sawyer ISBN: This dictionary not only identifies terms and biblical figures but also examines them from the perspective of "reception history"--the history of the Bible's effect on its readers. Biblical books, passages, and characters certainly played important roles in the history of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, but they also influenced other religious traditions, preachers, writers, poets, artists, and filmmakers.

The study of such cultural effects of the Bible is an emerging field, and this work promises to open new avenues of exploration. Sugirtharajah ISBN: Since its emergence a few years ago, postcolonial biblical criticism has witnessed swift expansion and development in Biblical Studies. This critical approach has been increasingly applied to biblical texts as well as modern and postmodern interpretations and interpreters of these texts, yielding an ever-growing body of dissertations, scholarly articles, and volumes.

In the process, this approach has become increasingly sophisticated as well in matters of method and theory. This Postcolonial Commentary on the New Testament Writings represents a critical benchmark in postcolonial biblical criticism. Indeed, the Commentary stands as the most comprehensive application to date of postcolonial criticism to the biblical texts, with its focus on the entire corpus of the New Testament.

It places the reality and ramifications of imperial-colonial frameworks and relations at the centre of biblical criticism.


The various entries pursue their analysis across a broad range of concerns and through a number of different approaches. Toward this end, the Commentary has recourse to a highly distinguished and diversified roster of scholars, making this a definite point of reference for years to come. The Africa Bible Commentary is unique. Written by African theologians and produced in Africa, it is the first one-volume commentary ever created to help pastors, students, and lay leaders in Africa apply God's Word to distinctively African concerns, yet its fresh insights will have a universal appeal. Vanhoozer ISBN: This groundbreaking reference tool introduces key names, theories, and concepts for interpreting Scripture.

This comprehensive two-volume reference work explores the history of research and reflection on the meaning of the Old and New Testaments. Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels by Joel B. TheDictionary of Jesus and the Gospelsis unique among reference books on the Bible, the first volume of its kind since James Hastings published hisDictionary of Christ and the Gospelsin In the more than eight decades since Hastings our understanding of Jesus, the Evangelists and their world has grown remarkably.

New interpretive methods have illumined the text, the ever-changing profile of modern culture has put new questions to the Gospels, and our understanding of the Judaism of Jesus' day has advanced in ways that could not have been predicted in Hasting's day. But for many readers of the Gospels the new outlook on the Gospels remains hidden within technical journals and academic monographs.

TheDictionary of Jesus and the Gospelsbridges the gap between scholars and those pastors, teachers, students and lay people desiring in-depth treatment of select topics in an accessible and summary format. The topics range from cross-sectional themes such as faith, law, Sabbath to methods of interpretation such as form criticism, redaction criticism, and death of Jesus to each of the four Gospels as a whole.

Some articles--such as the Dead Sea Scrolls, rabbinic traditions and revolutionary movements at the time of Jesus--provide significant background information to the Gospels. Others reflect recent and less familiar issues in Jesus and Gospel studies, such as divine man, ancient rhetoric and thechreiai aphorisms. Contemporary concerns of general interest are discussed in articles covering such topics as healing, the demonic and the historical reliability of the Gospels. And for those entrusted with communicating the message of the Gospels, there is an extensive article on preaching from the Gospels.

TheDictionary of Jesus and the Gospelspresents the fruit of evangelical New Testament scholarship at the end of the twentieth century--committed to the authority of Scripture, utilizing the best of critical methods, and maintaining dialog with contemporary scholarship and challenges facing the church. From Abelard to Zwingli, the history of Christian biblical interpretation has been shaped by great thinkers who delved deeply into the structure and meaning of Christianity's sacred texts.

With over two hundred in-depth articles, Donald McKim's Dictionary of Major Biblical Interpreters introduces readers to the principal players in that history: their historical and intellectual contexts, their primary works, their interpretive principles and their broader historical significance.

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In addition, six major essays offer an overview of the history of biblical interpretation from the second century to the present. This one-volume reference, a revised and vastly expanded edition of IVP Academic's Historical Handbook of Major Biblical Interpreters, will serve as an invaluable tool for any serious student of the Bible and the history of biblical interpretation.

Porter ISBN: In a time when our knowledge of the ancient Mediterranean world has grown by leaps and bounds, this volume sets out for readers the wealth of Jewish and Greco-Roman background that should inform our reading and understanding of the New Testament and early Christianity. TheDictionary of New Testament Backgroundtakes full advantage of the flourishing study of the Dead Sea Scrolls and offers individual articles focused on the most important scrolls.

In addition, theDictionaryencompasses the fullness of second-temple Jewish writings, whether pseudepigraphic, rabbinic, parables, proverbs, histories or inscriptions. Articles abound on aspects of Jewish life and thought, including family, purity, liturgy and messianism. The full scope of Greco-Roman culture is displayed in articles ranging across language and rhetoric, literacy and book culture, religion and cults, honor and shame, patronage and benefactors, travel and trade, intellectual movements and ideas, and ancient geographical perspectives.

No other reference work presents so much in one place for students of the New Testament. Here an entire library of scholarship is made available in summary form. TheDictionary of New Testament Backgroundcan stand alone or work in concert with one or more of its companion volumes in the series.

Written by acknowledged experts in their fields, this wealth of knowledge of the New Testament era is carefully aimed at the needs of contemporary students of the New Testament. And its full bibliographies and cross-references to other volumes in the series will make it the first book to reach for in any investigation of the New Testament in its ancient setting. Hawthorne, Daniel G. Martin ISBN: TheDictionary of Paul and His Lettersis a one-of-a-kind reference work.

Following the format of its hightly successful companion volume, theDictionary of Jesus and the Gospels, thisDictionaryis designed to bring students, teachers, ministers and laypople abreast the established conclusions and significant recent developments in Pauline scholarship. No other single reference work presents as much information focused exclusively on Pauline theology, literature, background and scholarship. In a field that recently has undergone significant shirts in perspective, theDictionary of Paul and His Lettersoffers asummaof Paul and Pauline studies.

In-depth articles focus on individual theological themes such as law, resurrection and Son of God , broad theological topics such as Christology, eschatology and the death of Christ , methods of interpretation such as rhetorical criticism and social-scientific approaches , background topics such as apocalypticism, Hellenism and Qumran and various other subjects specifically related to the scholarly study of Pauline theology and literature such as early catholicism, the center of Paul's theology, and Paul and his interpreters since F.

Separate articles are also devoted to each of the Pauline letters to hermeneutics and to preaching Paul today. TheDictionary of Paul and His Letterstakes its place alongside theDictionary of Jesus and the Gospelsin presenting the fruit of evangelical New Testament scholarship at the end of the twentieth century--commited to the authority of Scripture, utilizing the best of critical methods, and maintaining dialogue with contemporary scholarship and challenges facing the church. Dictionary of Scripture and Ethics by Joel B. Green ISBN: This one-stop reference book on the vital relationship between Scripture and ethics offers needed orientation and perspective for students, pastors, and scholars.

Written to respond to the movement among biblical scholars and ethicists to recover the Bible for moral formation, it is the best reference work available on the intersection of these two fields. The volume shows how Christian Scripture and Christian ethics are necessarily intertwined and offers up-to-date treatment of five hundred biblical, traditional, and contemporary topics, ranging from adultery, bioethics, and Colossians to vegetarianism, work, and Zephaniah.